Have a look at basic terms:

Product feed
Product feed aka product file, data feed is the most popular way of exchanging data in the affiliate marketing. The website owner (the affiliate) creates a product feed in order to provide up-to-date information on their product base. The feed may contain information on items you put on sale or services such as flights or telecom packages.

Affiliate network
For example, company like TradeDoubler that connects Publishers and Advertisers. It allows website owners find easily affiliate programs that suit the content they serve on their sites.
CSV file
Popular file format that can aggregate lots of data. It can be easily opened in Microsoft Excel, Open Office or plain Notepad.

Price comparison engines
Websites that were created to let users compare prices among various e-stores effortlessly. Most of comparison engines allow to look for products among multiple e-shops. Mind that the comparison engines don’t sell products directly, they just use affiliate links that redirect to the actual e-store.

Grabbing data directly from the website (web crawling)
It’s the process of grabbing data from the website before it can be distributed via product feed. The process begins with identifying key data and grabbing it in an orderly manner.

XML files
File format that has all data on products. Main idea behind creating its structure was to come up with the file that can be used to exchange information online. Each XML file has elements that describe a product, namely markups and their content. those elements should be built in a ordered manner so that it’s easy to distinguish between them when using simple syntax rules.

Data feed optimization
The process that aims to introduce changes in a current product feed in order to increase the conversion rate and the number of product search methods.

The very mechanism of retargeting means the activities carried out by e-commerce businesses that aim to target users who visited the website and left it without completing a desired action (e.g. product purchase).

Custom Search (CSE)
Custom search engine (CSE) is the search interface that offers Internet users to create custom search engines for their websites.

Landing pages parameters
Parameters are appended to the landing page in order to transmit to the analytics system additional data that will be used to assess the traffic quality. The most often used parameters are Google Analytics utm parameters. You can read more here: https://support.google.com/analytics/answer/1033867?hl=en-GB

Product feed attributes
Attributes can carry additional information that describes the product such as: availability, bestselling, additional color. Attributes enrich the product feed and give you some leverage when attracting potentials buyers. More information on attributes can be found at Google’s help center: https://support.google.com/merchants/answer/1344057?hl=en-GB&ref_topic=3404778

AdWords redirect
It allows you to give separate URL address that can used for monitoring the traffic from Google Shopping. When using this attribute, you need to remember that the URL it leads to has to be the same as the address provided in “link” attribute.